In the early 1800s, both Spain and Portugal disseminated the smallpox vaccine throughout the Americas via the ‘arm to arm of the blacks,’ that is, enslaved Africans and African-Americans, often children, who were being moved along slave routes as cargo from one city to another to be sold.
In the days of segregation, when blacks were limited to certain neighborhoods, you could look around the black community and identify who the leaders were.
Projects meant living with blacks and Puerto Ricans, but that’s what we wanted. Living in the projects, we’ve met so many wonderful, wonderful people.
After the Civil War, when blacks fought along whites to secure freedom for all, southern states enacted Black Codes, laws that restricted the civil rights and liberties of blacks. Central to the enforcement of these laws were the stiff penalties for blacks possessing firearms.
Until blacks and whites see each other as brother and sister, we will not have parity. It’s very clear.
Few would deny that blacks have become very dominant in athletics: football, basketball, track, now dominant in tennis and dominant in golf.
In elite, primarily white institutions, there are many blacks who have white wives. So much so that sometimes there is almost the assumption that I would be married to a white woman.
Only blacks can play the race card, apparently; only they think in racial terms, at least to hear white America tell it.
A Black man should be more independent and depend on himself for his freedom and not to take it for granted that someone would lead him to it. The blacks are tired of standing at the touchlines to witness a game that they should be playing. They want to do things for themselves and all by themselves.
For people of color – especially African Americans – the idea that racist cops might frame members of their community is no abstract notion, let alone an exercise in irrational conspiracy theorizing. Rather, it speaks to a social reality about which blacks are acutely aware.